Gum disease is a frequent condition that affects the tissues around the teeth. It causes swelling, redness of the gums, and occasionally discomfort and failure to treat it can result in gum recession and tooth loss.

What are the main types of gum disease?

Gingivitis, periodontitis, and acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis are the three primary kinds of gum disease (ANUG). Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums and surrounding tissues. If gingivitis is not treated, it can progress to periodontitis, a kind of gum disease that affects the bones and ligaments that support your teeth. ANUG is a dangerous sort of gum disease that appears out of nowhere. Because gum disease is not always painful, you may be unaware that you have it.


Gingivitis is caused by plaque, a soft, sticky material produced by bacteria. If you do not remove plaque from your teeth on a regular basis by brushing and flossing, your gums may get irritated. When you clean your teeth, your gums may bleed, although they are typically not painful.

Your gingivitis is likely to improve if you eliminate plaque and take good care of your teeth and gums. However, if the plaque is not adequately removed, you may develop periodontitis, a more dangerous form of gum disease.

Gingivitis symptoms include:

  • Bleeding after brushing or flossing your teeth or after eating anything firm, such as an apple
  • Bad breath occurs on occasion (halitosis)
  • You may also notice swollen or red gums.